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The true history of unism should start from the very first glimpses of universal reflection in the primitive society. Probably, such a review of the idea of universal integrity will be written in the future. Here, I only indicate a few milestones of the development of unism as a self-conscious ideology in XX and XXI centuries.

1970 ... 1974

Attempts to suggest a unifying scheme for the developing physical world, including organization along with the spatial and temporal dimensions (P. Ivanov). The insufficiency of the traditional informational approach and importance of development has been realized.

1974 ... 1977

Attempts to construct a formal mathematical model of a hierarchy (P. Ivanov) have lead to the understanding of the limitations of mathematics in general. The necessity of a more adequate logic has been realized.

1975 ... 1982

The hierarchical nature of music is revealed in the course of constructing a number of computer models of music creation (P. Ivanov, L. Avdeev), with its explanation yet remaining to be provided on the basis of deeper studies in the psychology of aesthetic perception.

1975 ... 1982

A critical analysis of a number of philosophies with a few unsuccessful attempts to develop a more consistent approach (P. Ivanov). The idea of philosophy as a level of reflection distinct from science and art has been formed.

December 1982

The idea of hierarchy has been clearly formulated for the first time and applied to human psychology (V. Koren).

January 1983

The first explicit description of the philosophy of unism (P. Ivanov, Dialectics of Hierarchies).

1983 ... 1985

A hierarchical model of musical pitch perception has been formulated; all the possible scales have been mathematically predicted and their aesthetic capacity has been derived from the hierarchical approach (L. Avdeev).

1983 ... 2005

The aesthetics of unism is extensively developed (P. Ivanov), including both the philosophy of the art and special issues.

1984 ... 1989

The idea of the integrity of the world is explicitly declared as the principal question of philosophy. The hierarchical approach is widely applied to psychology (V. Koren), biology and social development (P. Ivanov and Y. Rozhdestvensky). The philosophy of unism has been extended to cover all the scope of traditional problems (P. Ivanov).

1985 ... 2000

The hierarchical approach is applied to the foundations of mathematics and logic (P. Ivanov).

1987 ... 1995

The hierarchical model of musical pitch perception is extended to the perception of musical rhythm (L. Avdeev). Scale formation in the visual arts has been described (P. Ivanov, L. Avdeev).

1988 ... 1997

The hierarchical approach is applied to the foundations of physics (relativity, quantum mechanics, statistical physics). Hierarchy formation in atomic scattering is theoretically analyzed (P. Ivanov).

1991 ... 2004

A number of articles representing the ideas of unism have been published in various journals and thematic paper collections, as well as presented in a few Web forums. The publications are mainly concerned with the arts; however, they also discuss methodological issues from the viewpoint of unism.

December 1993

The first Web site devoted to unism has been opened at geocities.com (the service does not exist any longer).


Collected works by Meraïlih have been published, including many examples of hierarchical poetry.


The book The Genesis of the Scale by L. Avdeev and P. Ivanov has been published (as written in 1990). A review of the historical development of the idea of the scale in music has been given from the viewpoint of unism, and the formal theory of musical scales has been presented on the popular level adapted to a wide audience.


A chapter by P. Ivanov in the Ontology of Consciousness (H. Wautischer, ed.) gives the first extended description of the philosophy of unism in press.


The book Philosophy of Consciousness by P. Ivanov has been published. The fundamental principles of unism are discussed, including the description of the hierarchical approach and hierarchical logic, with their application to the problem of consciousness formation and development. The book contains an overview of the hierarchical approach to human psychology, as well as the first public exposition of the ethics of unism.